Injunctive norms of alcohol-related consequences among high school students : impact on alcohol outcomes

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Injunctive norms of alcohol-related consequences among high school students : impact on alcohol outcomes

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Title Injunctive norms of alcohol-related consequences among high school students : impact on alcohol outcomes
Author(s) Grazioli, V.S. ; Douglas, H. ; Dillworth, T. ; Fossos, N. ; Pace, T. ; Andersson, Claes ; Berglund, Mats ; Larimer, M.E.
Date 2013
English abstract
Literature indicates that high school students experience numerous negative consequences related to drinking (Miller, Naimi, Brewer, & Jones, 2007). It is therefore important to understand determinants of drinking behaviors in this population, such as injunctive norms (i.e., perception of self and/or others’ approval of a specific behavior; Cialdini et al., 1990). A recent study among college students documented a discrepancy between personal attitudes about alcohol-related consequences and perceived attitudes of peers, with students perceiving peers to be more approving of alcohol-related consequences than themselves, which predicted higher rates of alcohol use (DeMartini, Carey, Lao, & Luciano, 2011). To our knowledge, this has not been studied among high school students. Thus, the purpose of the current study is to evaluate the predictive role of perceived differences in injunctive norms between self and peers for alcohol-related consequences among high school seniors. The sample included 3,352 students in the US (n = 1181, 57.7%female) and Sweden (n = 2171, 55.9% female), participating in an international longitudinal study about alcohol use trajectories. Measures included injunctive norms for self and friends for alcohol-related consequences (i.e., 7 items adapted from the RAPI; White & Labouvie, 1989), alcohol-related consequences (RAPI; White & Labouvie, 1989), and alcohol use (DDQ; Collins, Parks, & Marlatt, 1985). Paired samples t-tests were used to compare mean injunctive norms for self (M = 1.78), and friends (M = 2.02). There was a significant difference in perceived attitudes between self and friends (t (3173) = -17.76, p < .001) such that injunctive norms for self were lower than for friends. Next, regression analyses evaluated the discrepancy in injunctive norms for self and friends and its relation to alcohol outcomes. Differences between self and friends were computed by subtracting self from friends (F-S). F-S significantly predicted total drinks per week (b = .11, F (1, 3059) = 40.27, p < .001), average drinks per drinking occasion (b = .08, F (1, 3059) = 17.37, p < .001), and negative consequences (b = .21, F (1, 3113) = 143.09, p < .001). These results provide additional support of the importance of injunctive norms of alcohol-related consequences in young adults and have implications for prevention programs tailored to high school students. This research was supported by NIAAA #U01 AA018276 awarded to Drs. Larimer & Berglund.
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Publisher Wiley
Series/Issue Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research;37:s2
ISSN 0145-6008
Pages 156A
Language eng (iso)
Subject(s) Medicine
Research Subject Categories::MEDICINE
Note 36th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism, June 22-26 – Orlando, Florida
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